Defense strategies of cotton against whitefly transmitted CLCuV and Begomoviruses

Muhammad Azmat Ullah Khan, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Abdul Qayyum Rao, Naila Shahid, Ayesha Latif, Salah ud Din, Tayyab Husnain


Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is economically important monopartite Geminivirus which is transmitted by whitefly in persistent circulative manner. In Pakistan, CLCuV causes severe damage to Gossypium hirsutum whereas G. arboreum is resistant to this virus. A total of 86 articles were included in this study that were searched through web of knowledge, web of science and google scholar by using the keywords of cotton, CLCuV, waxes, Begomoviruses and transgenic techniques used against Begomoviruses in plants. Various transgenic strategies i.e., pathogen derived resistance (with and without protein expression) and non - pathogen derived resistance have been adopted to control this virus or its vector. Beside these, some natural defense mechanisms of plant also protect it against the vector. The cuticular waxes make the insects’ attachment difficult to plant surfaces and act as a physical barrier. The cuticular waxes in G. arboreum act as first line of defense against whiteflies and thus CLCuV. Some other defense strategies may involve hindering the insect movements or depriving it from food due to thick waxy layer. Biotechnological strategies against various Begomoviruses including CLCuV were found successful in some crops except cotton. Whereas, the natural defense strategies in G. arboreum i.e., long trichome or presence of inorganic salts with increased concentration of waxes, provide good defense strategy against whiteflies, CLCuV and other pathogens.

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