Phylogenetic study of 46 Ancient Mitochondrial Human Genomes

Aqsa Khan, Nasir Ali, Wajiha Shafique, Ghani ur Rahman, Shaker Khan, Gohar Rahman, Bilal Ahmad Mian, Nazia Akbar, Habib Ahmad


Background: In the third era of ancient DNA field, it has endured the mesmerising modifications, which should be revealed. From side to side period, analysis of mitochondrial DNA permits to determine the evolutionary relationship among the species, to expose the terrestrial roots of the entities, to standardise the molecular clocks and to study the demographic pasts. Methods: In the current study we used bioinformatics tools for prediction of mitochondrial haplogroups and phylogenetic analysis. The ancient complete mitochondrial genomes were retrieved from online resources and were further used for phylogenetic analysis to know the evolutionary position of the ancient populations lived thousands of years ago. Results: We aligned 46 ancient genomes, collected online and estimated trees by using neighbour-joining, maximum parsimony and maximum-likelihood. Support for nodes was assessed with bootstrap replicates. During our analysis a strong bond between genomes of Altai Neanderthal, Motala 12, Motala 1, Loschbour, Ust'-Ishim, LBK, Mezmaiskaya Neanderthal, Denisova, RISE391(ERR844272), Clovis Anzick-1, RISE395(ERR844275) and RISE210(ERR844262) were found. In this context these ancient samples recommended the presence of a mutual earliest genomic signature. Conclusion: A significant population immigrations and alternates, accountable for influencing main parts of current demographic structure together in Europe and Asia is supported by the Bot15 (ERR668415) and RISE family. In the initial bronze period, ancestral similarity among these populations also share the theorised blow-out of Indo-European languages. Mechanisms of pathogen development and alteration for evolving and reappearing toxicities is also explained by this study. We aim that this study will help researchers in understanding the evolutionary position of ancient populations resided around the world. 

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