Viral outbreaks: A real threat to the world

Muhammad Asif, Shah Nawaz, Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar, Muhammad Rashid, Shafqat Shabir, Muhammad Kashif Khan, Muaaz Qadir


Global public health is facing significant challenges in terms of emerging and re-emerging pathogens. The world is facing a new public health crisis emergence and spread of Coronaviruses outbreaks especially COVID-19 after nine deadliest viral outbreaks including Marburg virus, Ebola virus, Rabies, HIV, Smallpox, Hantavirus, Influenza, Dengue and Rotavirus. Coronaviruses (enveloped non-segmented positive-sense RNA viruses) belong to the Coronaviridae family, broadly distributed in humans as well as in other mammals. In December 2019, the COVID-19 outbreak was reported in the Wuhan, Hubei province of China. WHO confirmed that COVID-19 is associated with Huanan seafood (Wuhan). COVID-19 virus outbreak is more dangerous than its ancestors MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. Although the case fatality rate is lower, it has alarmed the world because of its rapid spread during this era of the modern world where the whole world is connected through different channels of trade. As the world is already facing economic challenges, underdeveloped countries are not capable of facing such challenges, and this outbreak may become worse than ever before.

Keywords: Coronaviruses; COVID-19; Marburg virus; Ebola virus; Rabies; HIV; Smallpox; Hantavirus; Influenza; Dengue; Rotavirus

Full Text:



Bellou M, Kokkinos P, Vantarakis A. Shellfish-borne viral outbreaks: a systematic review. Food and Environmental Virologyl, (2013); 5(1): 13-23.

Grubaugh ND, Ladner JT, Lemey P, Pybus OG, Rambaut A, et al. Tracking virus outbreaks in the twenty-first century. Nature Microbiology, (2019); 4(1): 10-19.

Astuti I, Ysrafil. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): An overview of viral structure and host response. Diabetes & metabolic syndrome, (2020); 14(4): 407-412.

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, (2020); 395(10223): 497-506.

Sun P, Lu X, Xu C, Sun W, Pan B. Understanding of COVID‐19 based on current evidence. Journal of medical virology, (2020); 92(6): 548-51.

Adhikari SP, Meng S, Wu Y-J, Mao Y-P, Ye R-X, et al. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, (2020); 9(1): 1-12.

Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, Gao GF. A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. The Lancet, (2020); 395(10223): 470-473.

Guo YR, Cao QD, Hong ZS, Tan YY, Chen SD, et al. The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status. Military Medical Research, (2020); 7(1): 11.

Hassan SA, Sheikh FN, Jamal S, Ezeh JK, Akhtar A. Coronavirus (COVID-19): A Review of Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Cureus, (2020); 12(3): 1-7.

Singhal T. A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, (2020); 87(4): 281-286.

Cascella M, Rajnik M, Cuomo A, Dulebohn SC, Di Napoli R (2020) Features, Evaluation and Treatment Coronavirus (COVID-19). StatPearls [Internet]: StatPearls Publishing.

Chan JF-W, Yuan S, Kok K-H, To KK-W, Chu H, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. The Lancet, (2020); 395(10223): 514-523.

Ding Y, Wang H, Shen H, Li Z, Geng J, et al. The clinical pathology of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): a report from China. The Journal of Pathology: A Journal of the Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland, (2003); 200(3): 282-289.

Singhal T. A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, (2020); 1-6.

Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, et al. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Lancet respiratory medicine, (2020); 8(4):420-422.

Adhikari SP, Meng S, Wu YJ, Mao YP, Ye RX, et al. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, (2020); 9(1): 29.

Gao GF. From “A” IV to “Z” IKV: attacks from emerging and reemerging pathogens. Cell, (2018); 172(6): 1157-1159.

Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine, (2020); 382: 727-733.

Cui J, Li F, Shi Z-L. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nature reviews Microbiology, (2019); 17(3): 181-192.

Brian D, Baric R (2005) Coronavirus genome structure and replication. Coronavirus replication and reverse genetics: Springer. pp. 1-

Zaki AM, Van Boheemen S, Bestebroer TM, Osterhaus AD, Fouchier RA. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. New England Journal of Medicine, (2012); 367(19): 1814-1820.

Mizumoto K, Saitoh M, Chowell G, Miyamatsu Y, Nishiura H. Estimating the risk of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) death during the course of the outbreak in the Republic of Korea, 2015. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, (2015); 397-9.

Hui DS, Memish ZA, Zumla A. Severe acute respiratory syndrome vs. the Middle East respiratory syndrome. Current opinion in pulmonary medicine, (2014); 20(3): 233-241.

Assiri A, McGeer A, Perl TM, Price CS, Al Rabeeah AA, et al. Hospital outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. New England Journal of Medicine, (2013); 369(5): 407-416.

Haagmans BL, Al Dhahiry SH, Reusken CB, Raj VS, Galiano M, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in dromedary camels: an outbreak investigation. The Lancet infectious diseases, (2014); 14(2): 140-145.

Sha J, Li Y, Chen X, Hu Y, Ren Y, et al. Fatality risks for nosocomial outbreaks of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the Middle East and South Korea. Archives of virology, (2017); 162(1): 33-44.

Petersen E, Pollack MM, Madoff LC. Health-care associate transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus, MERS-CoV, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, (2014); 29: 299-300.

Rha B, Rudd J, Feikin D, Watson J, Curns AT, et al. Update on the epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, and guidance for the public, clinicians, and public health authorities—January 2015. MMWR Morbidity and mortality weekly report, (2015); 64(3): 61.

Poutanen SM, Low DE, Henry B, Finkelstein S, Rose D, et al. Identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Canada. New England Journal of Medicine, (2003); 348(20): 1995-2005.

Ofner M, Lem M, Sarwal S, Vearncombe M, Simor A. Cluster of severe acute respiratory syndrome cases among protected health care workers-Toronto, April 2003. Canada communicable disease report= Releve des maladies transmissibles au Canada, (2003); 29(11): 93-97.

Wong SF, Chow KM, Leung TN, Ng WF, Ng TK, et al. Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes of women with severe acute respiratory syndrome. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, (2004); 191(1): 292-297.

Perera R, Wang P, Gomaa M, El-Shesheny R, Kandeil A, et al. Seroepidemiology for MERS coronavirus using microneutralization and pseudoparticle virus neutralization assays reveal a high prevalence of antibody in dromedary camels in Egypt, June 2013. Eurosurveillance, (2013); 18(36): 20574.

Cotten M, Lam TT, Watson SJ, Palser AL, Petrova V, et al. Full-genome deep sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of novel human betacoronavirus. Emerging infectious diseases, (2013); 19(5): 736.

Azhar EI, El-Kafrawy SA, Farraj SA, Hassan AM, Al-Saeed MS, et al. Evidence for camel-to-human transmission of MERS coronavirus. New England Journal of Medicine, (2014); 370(26): 2499-2505.

Perlman S. Another decade, another coronavirus. New England Journal of Medicine, (2020); 382: 760-762.

Sabir JS, Lam TT-Y, Ahmed MM, Li L, Shen Y, et al. Co-circulation of three camel coronavirus species and recombination of MERS-CoVs in Saudi Arabia. Science, (2016); 351(6268): 81-84.

Graham RL, Baric RS. Recombination, reservoirs, and the modular spike: mechanisms of coronavirus cross-species transmission. Journal of virology, (2010); 84(7): 3134-3146.

Memish ZA, Zumla AI, Assiri A. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections in health care workers. New England Journal of Medicine, (2013); 369(9): 884-886.

Drosten C, Meyer B, Müller MA, Corman VM, Al-Masri M, et al. Transmission of MERS-coronavirus in household contacts. New England Journal of Medicine, (2014); 371(9): 828-835.

team HPAUNCI. Evidence of person-to-person transmission within a family cluster of novel coronavirus infections, United Kingdom, February 2013. Euro surveillance: bulletin Européen sur les maladies transmissibles= European communicable disease bulletin, (2013); 18(11): 20427.

Brauburger K, Hume AJ, Mühlberger E, Olejnik J. Forty-five years of Marburg virus research. Viruses, (2012); 4(10): 1878-1927.

Bausch DG, Nichol ST, Muyembe-Tamfum JJ, Borchert M, Rollin PE, et al. Marburg hemorrhagic fever associated with multiple genetic lineages of virus. New England Journal of Medicine, (2006); 355(9): 909-919.

Towner JS, Khristova ML, Sealy TK, Vincent MJ, Erickson BR, et al. Marburgvirus genomics and association with a large hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Angola. Journal of virology, (2006); 80(13): 6497-6516.

Slenczka W, Klenk HD. Forty years of marburg virus. The Journal of infectious diseases, (2007); 196(Supplement_2): S131-S135.

Martina BE, Osterhaus AD. “Filoviruses”: a real pandemic threat? EMBO molecular medicine, (2009); 1(1): 10-18.

Mekibib B, Ariën KK. Aerosol transmission of filoviruses. Viruses, (2016); 8(5): 148.

Brainard J, Hooper L, Pond K, Edmunds K, Hunter PR. Risk factors for transmission of Ebola or Marburg virus disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International journal of epidemiology, (2016); 45(1): 102-116.

Park DJ, Dudas G, Wohl S, Goba A, Whitmer SL, et al. Ebola virus epidemiology, transmission, and evolution during seven months in Sierra Leone. Cell, (2015); 161(7): 1516-1526.

Martini G, Schmidt H. Spermatogenic transmission of the" Marburg virus".(Causes of" Marburg simian disease"). Klinische Wochenschrift, (1968); 46(7): 398.

Legrand J, Grais RF, Boelle P-Y, Valleron A-J, Flahault A. Understanding the dynamics of Ebola epidemics. Epidemiology & Infection, (2007); 135(4): 610-621.

Leroy EM, Kumulungui B, Pourrut X, Rouquet P, Hassanin A, et al. Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus. Nature, (2005); 438(7068): 575-576.

Piot P, Muyembe J-J, Edmunds WJ. Ebola in west Africa: from disease outbreak to humanitarian crisis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, (2014); 14(11): 1034-1035.

Khan AS, Tshioko FK, Heymann DL, Le Guenno B, Nabeth P, et al. The reemergence of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995. The Journal of infectious diseases, (1999); 179(Supplement_1): S76-S86.

Leroy EM, Epelboin A, Mondonge V, Pourrut X, Gonzalez J-P, et al. Human Ebola outbreak resulting from direct exposure to fruit bats in Luebo, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2007. Vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, (2009); 9(6): 723-728.

Brainard J, Pond K, Hooper L, Edmunds K, Hunter P. Presence and persistence of Ebola or Marburg virus in patients and survivors: a rapid systematic review. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, (2016); 10(2): 1-17.

Rodriguez L, De Roo A, Guimard Y, Trappier S, Sanchez A, et al. Persistence and genetic stability of Ebola virus during the outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995. The Journal of infectious diseases, (1999); 179(Supplement_1): S170-S176.

Mate SE, Kugelman JR, Nyenswah TG, Ladner JT, Wiley MR, et al. Molecular evidence of sexual transmission of Ebola virus. New England Journal of Medicine, (2015); 373(25): 2448-2454.

Christie A, Davies-Wayne GJ, Cordier-Lasalle T, Blackley DJ, Laney AS, et al. Possible sexual transmission of Ebola virus—Liberia, 2015. MMWR Morbidity and mortality weekly report, (2015); 64(17): 479.

Roels T, Bloom A, Buffington J, Muhungu G, Mac Kenzie W, et al. Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995: risk factors for patients without a reported exposure. The Journal of infectious diseases, (1999); 179(Supplement_1): S92-S97.

Srinivasan A, Burton EC, Kuehnert MJ, Rupprecht C, Sutker WL, et al. Transmission of rabies virus from an organ donor to four transplant recipients. New England Journal of Medicine, (2005); 352(11): 1103-1111.

Consales C, Bolzan V. Rabies review: immunopathology, clinical aspects and treatment. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases, (2007); 13(1): 5-38.

Gibbons RV. Cryptogenic rabies, bats, and the question of aerosol transmission. Annals of emergency medicine, (2002); 39(5): 528-536.

Taylor LH, Wallace RM, Balaram D, Lindenmayer JM, Eckery DC, et al. The role of dog population management in rabies elimination—a review of current approaches and future opportunities. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, (2017); 4: 1-15.

Hammond SA, Walwender D, Alving CR, Glenn GM. Transcutaneous immunization: T cell responses and boosting of existing immunity. Vaccine, (2001); 19(17-19): 2701-2707.

Warrell M, Warrell D. Rabies and other lyssavirus diseases. The Lancet, (2004); 363(9413): 959-969.

Hemachudha T, Laothamatas J, Rupprecht CE. Human rabies: a disease of complex neuropathogenetic mechanisms and diagnostic challenges. The Lancet Neurology, (2002); 1(2): 101-109.

Dietzschold B, Morimoto K, Hooper D, Smith J, Rupprecht C, et al. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of rabies virus variants involved in human rabies: implications for postexposure prophylaxis. Journal of human virology, (2000); 3(1): 50-57.

Da Rosa ES, Kotait I, Barbosa TF, Carrieri ML, Brandão PE, et al. Bat-transmitted human rabies outbreaks, Brazilian Amazon. Emerging infectious diseases, (2006); 12(8): 1197.

Lopez RA, Miranda PP, Tejada VE, Fishbein D. Outbreak of human rabies in the Peruvian jungle. The lancet, (1992); 339(8790): 408-411.

De Mattos CC, De Mattos CA, Loza-Rubio E, Aguilar-Setién A, Orciari LA, et al. Molecular characterization of rabies virus isolates from Mexico: implications for transmission dynamics and human risk. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, (1999); 61(4): 587-597.

Schneider MC, Santos-Burgoa C, Aron J, Munoz B, Ruiz-Velazco S, et al. Potential force of infection of human rabies transmitted by vampire bats in the Amazonian region of Brazil. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, (1996); 55(6): 680-684.

Broder S. The development of antiretroviral therapy and its impact on the HIV-1/AIDS pandemic. Antiviral research, (2010); 85(1): 1-18.

Faria NR, Rambaut A, Suchard MA, Baele G, Bedford T, et al. The early spread and epidemic ignition of HIV-1 in human populations. science, (2014); 346(6205): 56-61.

De Bruyn M. Women and aids in developing countries: The XIIth international conference on the social sciences and medicine. Social Science & Medicine, (1992); 34(3): 249-262.

Herek GM. AIDS and stigma. American behavioral scientist, (1999); 42(7): 1106-1116.

Varni SE, Miller CT, Solomon SE. Sexual behavior as a function of stigma and coping with stigma among people with HIV/AIDS in rural New England. AIDS and Behavior, (2012); 16(8): 2330-2339.

Ferguson NM, Keeling MJ, Edmunds WJ, Gani R, Grenfell BT, et al. Planning for smallpox outbreaks. Nature, (2003); 425(6959): 681-685.

Smith GL, McFadden G. Smallpox: anything to declare? Nature Reviews Immunology, (2002); 2(7): 521-527.

Enserink M. Biowarfare. Did bioweapons test cause a deadly smallpox outbreak? Science, (2002); 296(5576): 2116-2117.

Riley S, Ferguson NM. Smallpox transmission and control: spatial dynamics in Great Britain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (2006); 103(33): 12637-12642.

Kaplan EH, Craft DL, Wein LM. Emergency response to a smallpox attack: the case for mass vaccination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (2002); 99(16): 10935-10940.

Tovey D. The Bradford smallpox outbreak in 1962: a personal account. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, (2004); 97(5): 244-247.

Bhatnagar V, Stoto MA, Morton SC, Boer R, Bozzette SA. Transmission patterns of smallpox: systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II. BMC Public Health, (2006); 6(1): 126.

Milton DM. What was the primary mode of smallpox transmission? Implications for biodefense. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, (2012); 2: 1-7.

Henderson R, Yekpe M. Smallpox transmission in southern Dahomey: a study of a village outbreak. American journal of epidemiology, (1969); 90(5): 423-428.

Childs JE, Ksiazek TG, Spiropoulou CF, Krebs JW, Morzunov S, et al. Serologic and genetic identification of Peromyscus maniculatus as the primary rodent reservoir for a new hantavirus in the southwestern United States. Journal of Infectious Diseases, (1994); 169(6): 1271-1280.

Hjelle B, Glass GE. Outbreak of hantavirus infection in the Four Corners region of the United States in the wake of the 1997–1998 El Nino—Southern Oscillation. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, (2000); 181(5): 1569-1573.

Krüger DH, Ulrich R, Lundkvist Å. Hantavirus infections and their prevention. Microbes and infection, (2001); 3(13): 1129-1144.

Hofmann J, Meisel H, Klempa B, Vesenbeckh SM, Beck R, et al. Hantavirus outbreak, Germany, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, (2008); 14(5): 850.

Wells RM, Estani SS, Yadon ZE, Enria D, Padula P, et al. An unusual hantavirus outbreak in southern Argentina: person-to-person transmission? Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Study Group for Patagonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, (1997); 3(2): 171.

Wells RM, Young J, Williams RJ, Armstrong LR, Busico K, et al. Hantavirus transmission in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, (1997); 3(3): 361.

Kallio ER, Klingström J, Gustafsson E, Manni T, Vaheri A, et al. Prolonged survival of Puumala hantavirus outside the host: evidence for indirect transmission via the environment. Journal of General Virology, (2006); 87(8): 2127-2134.

Rao B. Epidemiology and control of influenza. National medical journal of india, (2003); 16(3): 143-149.

Tellier R. Review of aerosol transmission of influenza A virus. Emerging infectious diseases, (2006); 12(11): 1657.

Bridges C, Kuehnert M, Hall C. Transmission of influenza: implications for control in health care settings (vol 37, pg 1094, 2003). Clinical infectious diseases, (2006); 42(5): 737-737.

Nicas M, Nazaroff WW, Hubbard A. Toward understanding the risk of secondary airborne infection: emission of respirable pathogens. Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene, (2005); 2(3): 143-154.

Ehelepola NDB, Wijesinghe WMCM. An Analysis of a Dengue Outbreak at a Large Hospital and Epidemiological Evidence for Nosocomial Dengue. Journal of Tropical Medicine, (2018); 2018: 1-9.

Brady OJ, Gething PW, Bhatt S, Messina JP, Brownstein JS, et al. Refining the global spatial limits of dengue virus transmission by evidence-based consensus. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, (2012); 6(8): 1-15.

Kuno G. Review of the Factors Modulating Dengue Transmission. Epidemiologic Reviews, (1995); 17(2): 321-335.

Scott TW, Naksathit A, Day JF, Kittayapong P, Edman JD. A fitness advantage for Aedes aegypti and the viruses it transmits when females feed only on human blood. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, (1997); 57(2): 235-239.

Thammapalo S, Meksawi S, Chongsuvivatwong V. Effectiveness of space spraying on the transmission of dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) in an urban area of Southern Thailand. Journal of tropical medicine, (2012); 2012: 1-7.

Gratz NG. EMERGING AND RESURGING VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES. Annual Review of Entomology, (1999); 44(1): 51-75.

Chen LH, Wilson ME. Transmission of Dengue Virus without a Mosquito Vector: Nosocomial Mucocutaneous Transmission and Other Routes of Transmission. Clinical Infectious Diseases, (2004); 39(6): e56-e60.

Bowman LR, Donegan S, McCall PJ. Is dengue vector control deficient in effectiveness or evidence?: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, (2016); 10(3).

Kroeger A, Nathan M, Hombach J. Focus: dengue. Nature Reviews Microbiology, (2004); 2(5): 360-361.

Crawford SE, Ramani S, Tate JE, Parashar UD, Svensson L, et al. Rotavirus infection. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, (2017); 3: 1-16.

Woyessa AB, Abebe A, Beyene B, Tefera M, Assefa E, et al. Rotavirus-associated acute diarrhea outbreak in West Shewa Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia, 2017. Pan African Medical Journal, (2019); 32: 1-10.

Lestari FB, Vongpunsawad S, Wanlapakorn N, Poovorawan Y. Rotavirus infection in children in Southeast Asia 2008–2018: disease burden, genotype distribution, seasonality, and vaccination. Journal of Biomedical Science, (2020); 27(1): 66.

Dennehy PH. Transmission of rotavirus and other enteric pathogens in the home. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, (2000); 19(10): S103-S105.

Flewett T. Rotavirus in the home and hospital nursery. British medical journal (Clinical research ed), (1983); 287(6392): 568.

Zhaori G, Fu L, Xu Y, Guo Y, Peng Z, et al. Detection of rotavirus antigen in tracheal aspirates of infants and children with pneumonia. Chinese medical journal, (1991); 104(10): 830-833.

Keswick B, Pickering L, DuPont H, Woodward W. Survival and detection of rotaviruses on environmental surfaces in day care centers. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, (1983); 46(4): 813-816.

Pickering LK, Bartlett III AV, Reves RR, Morrow A. Asymptomatic excretion of rotavirus before and after rotavirus diarrhea in children in day care centers. The Journal of pediatrics, (1988); 112(3): 361-365.

Anderson A, Shwiff S, Gebhardt K, Ramírez AJ, Shwiff S, et al. Economic Evaluation of Vampire Bat (D esmodus rotundus) Rabies Prevention in M exico. Transboundary and emerging diseases, (2014); 61(2): 140-146.

Hampson K, Coudeville L, Lembo T, Sambo M, Kieffer A, et al. Estimating the global burden of endemic canine rabies. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, (2015); 9(4).

Sackey J, Raparla T. Lesotho: The Development, Impact of HIV/AIDS-Selected Issues and Options. World Bank Report, (2000); (21103-LSO).

Nelson AM. The cost of disease eradication: smallpox and bovine tuberculosis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, (1999); 894(1): 83-91.

Macfarlane JT, Lim WS (2005) Bird flu and pandemic flu. British Medical Journal Publishing Group.

Smith RD, Keogh-Brown MR, Barnett T, Tait J. The economy-wide impact of pandemic influenza on the UK: a computable general equilibrium modelling experiment. BMJ, (2009); 339: 1-7.

Hung TM, Clapham HE, Bettis AA, Cuong HQ, Thwaites GE, et al. The estimates of the health and economic burden of dengue in Vietnam. Trends in parasitology, (2018); 34(10): 904-918.

Godói IP, Da Silva LVD, Sarker AR, Megiddo I, Morton A, et al. Economic and epidemiological impact of dengue illness over 16 years from a public health system perspective in Brazil to inform future health policies including the adoption of a dengue vaccine. Expert review of vaccines, (2018); 17(12): 1123-1133.

Bartsch SM, Lopman BA, Ozawa S, Hall AJ, Lee BY. Global economic burden of norovirus gastroenteritis. PloS one, (2016); 11(4): 1-16.

Joo H, Maskery BA, Berro AD, Rotz LD, Lee Y-K, et al. Economic Impact of the 2015 MERS Outbreak on the Republic of Korea's Tourism-Related Industries. Health security, (2019); 17(2): 100-108.

Gemechu R. Review on Economic Importance’s of Rabies in Developing Countries and Its Controls. ‪Archives of Preventive Medicine, (2017); 2(1): 15-21.

Shah M, Risher K, Berry SA, Dowdy DW. The epidemiologic and economic impact of improving HIV testing, linkage, and retention in care in the United States. Clinical infectious diseases, (2016); 62(2): 220-229.

Lee J-W, McKibbin WJ. Estimating the global economic costs of SARS; 2004. National Academies Press Washington, DC. pp. 92.


  • There are currently no refbacks.