Comparative study to access coagulation abnormalities in breast cancer

Toraiz Ahmed, Rana Shakil Ahmed, Muhammad Usman Basharat, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq, Shakira Sadiq Gill, Abdur Rehman Khawaja, Muhammad Farhan Khan, Arman Khan


Background: Coagulation abnormalities such as thrombosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) are the major factors that play a major role in breast cancer. In this study, coagulation abnormalities were assessed in breast cancer patients to help the clinician in early detection of DIC and management of patients at different stages of breast cancer.

Methods: 75 patients were enrolled in the study, 50 were from case group (breast cancer patients) and 25 were selected as control group subjects used to compare the results. All of these subjects undergone, General Hematological analysis i.e. differential leukocyte count hemoglobin, platelets count and total leukocyte count were performed on each of the samples collected from the subjects and Specific Hematological analysis i.e. Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT), Fibrinogen Assay, Prothrombin Time (PT), D-Dimer Detection and Fibrin Degradation Products (FDPs).

Results: PT was found to be comparable in patients with breast cancer when compared with controls. Difference between control group (II) and subjects with breast cancer (I) was non-significant, fibrinogen level was found to be significantly increased (p < 0.01) in patients with different stages of breast cancer when compared with controls. FDPs were found to be significantly increased (p< 0.01) in patients of breast cancer when compared with control group. These increased levels of FDPs may be due to enhanced fibrinolysis. D-Dimers were also found to be significantly increased (p < 0.01) in patients with breast cancer when compared with controls.

Conclusion: Patients with breast cancer were associated with compensated DIC state including normal PT and APTT level but increased fibrinogen and platelets count as compared to the controls. Detection of D-Dimers offers a differential analysis over other laboratory tests for DIC.

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