Reserve Carbohydrate Metabolism in Crabtree-Negative and –Positive Yeasts at Different Carbon Sources



Background: The fermentation of sugars into ethanol even in the presence of oxygen is referred to as the Crabtree effect. The yeast cells displaying Crabtree effect are indicated as Crabtree-positive yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Crabtree positive and Debaryomyces occidentalis is Crabtree-negative yeast which does not have Crabtree effect. The reserve carbohydrate metabolism is different in Crabtree-positive and Crabtree-negative yeast cells. The present study aimed to determine the trehalose and glycogen accumulation patterns both in Crabtree-positive and Crabtree-negative yeast species.

Methods: In this research, trehalose and glycogen contents of S. cerevisiae and D. occidentalis yeast species were examined in a time course manner in three different carbon sources: glucose, galactose and glycerol. Firstly, yeast cells were grown in rich media supplemented with glucose then all washed and switched to fresh cultures including glucose, galactose and glycerol.

Results: In S. cerevisiae yeast cells the overnight accumulated trehalose degraded very rapidly after non-fermentable carbon source replenishment, but this took place in a long time, nearly two days, in D. occidentalis yeast cells. However, whenever D. occidentalis yeast cells shifted to glycerol, all the accumulated trehalose degraded within the twelve hours. Glycogen accumulation in D. occidentalis yeast cells is lower than S. cerevisiae yeast cells both in fermentable and non-fermentable carbon sources.

Conclusion: Results indicated that glycogen and trehalose accumulation patterns are completely different in D. occidentalis than S. cerevisiae. Crabtree-negative yeast cells generally, prefer to accumulate glycogen instead of trehalose as reserve carbohydrate. But in our research we proved that Crabtree-negative yeast D. occidentalis, accumulates more trehalose than S. cerevisiae yeast cells in non-fermentable carbon sources.

Keywords: Trehalose; Glycogen; Debaryomyces occidentalisSaccharomyces cerevisiae; Crabtree effect


Full Text:



Kregiel D. Physiology and metabolism of Crabtree-negative yeast Debaryomyces occidentalis. Food Chemistry and Biotechnology, (2008); 72(1029): 35–43.

Chen KC., Csikasz-Nagy A, Gyorffy B, Val J, Novak B, Tyson JJ. Kinetic analysis of a molecular model of the budding yeast cell cycle. Molecular Biology of the Cell, (2000); 11: 369–91.

De Deken RH. The Crabtree effect: A regulatory system in yeast. Journal of General Microbiology, (1966); 44: 149–56.

Van Urk H, Voll WSL, Dcheffers WA, van Dijken J. Transient-state analysis of metabolic fluxes in Crabtree-positive and Crabtree-negative yeasts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, (1990); 56: 281–87

Lillie SH, Pringle JR. Reserve carbohydrate metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Responses to nutrient limitation, Journal of Bacteriology, (1980); 143: 1384–94.

Parrou JL, Teste MA, François J. Effects of various types of stress on the metabolism of reserve carbohydrates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: genetic evidence for a stress-induced recycling of glycogen and trehalose. Microbiology, (1997); 143(6): 1891–1900.

Carter BL, Jagadish MN. Control of cell division in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultured at different growth rates. Experimental Cell Research, (1978); 112: 373–83.

Johnston GC, Singer RA. Ribosomal precursor RNA metabolism and cell division in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular General Genetics, (1980); 178: 357–60.

Sillje HHW, Ter Schure EG, Rommens AJM, Huls PG, Woldringh CL, Verkleij AJ, Boonstra J, Verrips CT. Effects of different carbon fluxes on G1 phase duration, cyclin expression and reserve carbohydrate metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Bacteriology, (1997); 179: 6560–65.

Parrou JL, François J. A simplified procedure for a rapid and reliable assay of both glycogen and trehalose in whole yeast cells. Analytical Biochemistry, (1997), 248: 186–88.

Goldstein A, Lampen JO. Beta-D-fructofuranoside Fructohydrolase from Yeast. Methods in Enzymology, (1975); 42: 504–11.

Paalman JWG, Verwaal S, Slofstra SH, Verkleij AJ, Boonstra J, Verrips CT. Trehalose and glycogen accumulation is related to the duration of the G1 phase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Research, (2003); 3(3): 261–68.

Lin Z, Li WH. Expansion of hexose transporter genes was associated with the evolution of aerobic fermentation in yeasts. Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2011); 28(1): 131–42.

Ferreira C, van Voorst F, Martins A, Nevels L, Oliveria R, Kielland-Brandt MC, Lucas C, Brandt A. A member of the sugar transporter family, Stl1p is the glycerol/H+ symporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular Biology of the Cell, (2005); 16(4): 2068–76.

Hohmann S. Osmotic stress signaling and osmoadaptation in yeasts. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, (2002); 66(2): 300–72.

Türkel S. Comparative analysis of glycogen and trehalose accumulation in Methylotrophic and nonmethylotrophic yeasts. Microbiology, (2006), 75(6): 737-41.

Enjalbert B, Parrou JL, Vincent O, Francois J. Mitochondrial respiratory mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulate glycogen and readily mobilize it in a glucose-depleted medium. Microbiology, (2000); 146: 2685–94.

François J, Parrou J. Reserve carbohydrates metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, (2001); 25: 125–45.


  • There are currently no refbacks.