Colour Vision Deficiency and Consanguinity in Pakistani Pukhtoon Population

Mian Sahib Zar, Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, Abdul Rehman Haris, Muhammad Aslamkhan


Background: Color vision deficiency is an X-linked recessive condition. This is more common among males as compared to females. This inherit from maternal grandfather to grandson usually. This study was aimed to find prevalence of color vision deficiency and consanguinity in Pukhtoon population of Pakistan.

Methods: Three hundred and fourteen (314) high school individuals of both genders were screened for color vision deficiency using pseudoisochromatic Ishihara Plates. Consanguinity of parents were also recorded. Frequency of color vision deficiency over entire sample was used to calculate prevalence. Chi-square is used to see association between color vision deficiency and consanguinity.

Result: Prevalence of CVD among males and females were 5.32% and 2.06%. Prevalence of consanguinity among parents of participants were 73.9%.

Conclusion: Study showed prevalence of CVD among males as comparable to already reported but among females the rate is relatively higher. Rate of consanguinity among study population is also higher than previously reported ones.

Keywords: Color vision deficiency; consanguinity; Pukhtoon

Full Text:



Kawamura S, Melin AD (2017) Evolution of genes for color vision and the chemical senses in primates. In: Saitou N, editor. Evolution of the Human Genome I: The Genome and Genes. Tokyo, Japan: Springer Japan. pp. 181-216.

Akhtar MS, Aslamkhan M, Zar MS, Hanif A, Haris AR. Dichromacy: Colour Vision Impairment and Consanguinity in Heterogenous Population of Pakistan. The International Journal of Frontier Sciences, (2019); 3(1): 41-56.

Akthar MS. Role of Epidemiological Studies in Disease Prevention. The International Journal of Frontier Sciences, (2019); 3(1): 1-2.

Omrani B. the durand line: history and problems of the Afghan-Pakistan border. Asian Affairs, (2009); 40(2): 177-195.

Britannica E. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Millennium 4th Edition Copyright, (1994); 20031994-2003.

Dani AH. Pakistan through ages: History of Pakistan. 2007; 1. Sang-e-Meel Publications.

Faiz S, Zehra S, Qureshi F, Mumtaz S. Colour Blindness Among Male Professional Drivers: A Cross-sectional Study In Karachi, (2019); 9(2): 124-127.

Khairoalsindi OA, Almasoudi BM, Bamahfouz AY, Alghamdi AA, Siddiqui MI. Prevalence and determinants of color vision defects among preparatory university students at Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology, (2019); 26(3): 133.

Nazeer M, Bashir S, Rafiq N. Color Vision Deficiency in Medical Students in Jammu & Kashmir, India. Galician Medical Journal, (2019); 26(1): 23-26.

Sthanadar AA, Bittles AH, Zahid M. Civil unrest and the current profile of consanguineous marriage in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Journal of Biosocial Science, (2014); 46(5): 698-701.

Pervaiz R, Faisal F, Serakinci N. Practice of consanguinity and attitudes towards risk in the Pashtun population of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Journal of biosocial science, (2018); 50(3): 414-420.

Aslamkhan M, Ali A, Barnett H. Consanguineous marriages in rural west Pakistan. Annual Reptorts of University Medical School ICMRT, (1969); 69: 181-192.

Aslamkhan M. Clinical genetics and genetic counselling in Pakistan. Journal of Genes and Cells, (2015); 1(2): 31-33.


  • There are currently no refbacks.