Metabolic and molecular effects of edible oils on PPAR modulators in rabbit liver

Syed Nasir Ahamed, Johra Khan, Syed Rahamathulla, T.C. Venkateswarulu, S. Krupanidhu


Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are the receptors that switch-on DNA responding elements as heterodimers with nuclear retinoic acid. These are the transcription factors and belong to the family of nuclear receptors and key regulators for lipid and glucose metabolism.

Methods: The study was designed to investigate the effect of edible oil on PPAR Alpha & Gamma expression on rabbit liver.

Results: Reduced Glutathione (GSH) activity showed a significant increase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity showed a significant decrease in batch II and batch III in comparison to control group was observed. Out of the total 3 batches, an increase was significantly increased in batch III (160%) in comparison to batch II (151%).  Inedible oil-treated Batches, PPAR α, and PPAR γ levels were found to decrease significantly for the control batch. The decrease in PPAR alpha levels in batch II and batch III was 1.7 and 2.2 fold with p<0.01. In the case of PPAR gamma, the corresponding values increased by 1.6 and 2.4 fold respectively with p<0.01.

Conclusion: The study demonstrated that edible oil supplementation significantly increases mRNA levels up to two-fold in comparison to the control batch.    

Keywords: PPARα; PPARγ; Edible oil; Reduced glutathione; Glutathione peroxidase 

Full Text:



Mohdaly AA, Smetanska I, Ramadan MF, Sarhan MA, Mahmoud A. Antioxidant potential of sesame (Sesamum indicum) cake extract in stabilization of sunflower and soybean oils. Industrial Crops and Products, (2011); 34(1): 952-959.

Hussain SA, Hameed A, Ajmal I, Nosheen S, Suleria HAR, et al. Effects of sesame seed extract as a natural antioxidant on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. Journal of food science and technology, (2018); 55(10): 4099-4110.

Lei L, Xiaoyi S, Fuchang L. Effect of dietary copper addition on lipid metabolism in rabbits. Food & nutrition research, (2017); 61(1): 1348866.

Taskinen M-R, Borén J. New insights into the pathophysiology of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis, (2015); 239(2): 483-495.

Khan J, Alaidarous MA, Naseem A. Dyslipidemia Relationship with Socioeconomic Status in East Champaran Population. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Allied Sciences, (2020); 9(2).

Khan J. Magnesium Deficiency and its Correlation with Insulin Resistance in Obese Females in Majmaah. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, (2018); 49(2): 117-119.

Umemoto T, Fujiki Y. Ligand‐dependent nucleo‐cytoplasmic shuttling of peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptors, PPARα and PPARγ. Genes to Cells, (2012); 17(7): 576-596.

Pirat C, Farce A, Lebègue N, Renault N, Furman C, et al. Targeting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs): development of modulators. Journal of medicinal chemistry, (2012); 55(9): 4027-4061.

Smeets PJ, Planavila A, Van Der Vusse GJ, Van Bilsen M. Peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptors and inflammation: take it to heart. Acta Physiologica, (2007); 191(3): 171-188.

Cipolletta D, Feuerer M, Li A, Kamei N, Lee J, et al. PPAR-γ is a major driver of the accumulation and phenotype of adipose tissue T reg cells. Nature, (2012); 486(7404): 549-553.

Lage R, Diéguez C, Vidal-Puig A, López M. AMPK: a metabolic gauge regulating whole-body energy homeostasis. Trends in molecular medicine, (2008); 14(12): 539-549.

Boitier E, Gautier J-C, Roberts R. Advances in understanding the regulation of apoptosis and mitosis by peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors in pre-clinical models: relevance for human health and disease. Comparative hepatology, (2003); 2(1): 1-15.

Kliewer SA, Sundseth SS, Jones SA, Brown PJ, Wisely GB, et al. Fatty acids and eicosanoids regulate gene expression through direct interactions with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and γ. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (1997); 94(9): 4318-4323.

Calabresi L, Villa B, Canavesi M, Sirtori CR, James RW, et al. An ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate increases plasma high-density lipoprotein 2 cholesterol and paraoxonase levels in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia. Metabolism, (2004); 53(2): 153-158.

Guan Y, Breyer M. Targeting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in kidney and urologic disease. Minerva urologica e nefrologica, (2002); 54(2): 65-80.

Zambon A, Gervois P, Pauletto P, Fruchart J-C, Staels B. Modulation of Hepatic Inflammatory Risk Markers of Cardiovascular Diseases by PPAR–α Activators: Clinical and Experimental Evidence. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, (2006); 26(5): 977-986.

Barbier O, Torra IP, Duguay Y, Blanquart C, Fruchart J-C, et al. Pleiotropic actions of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology, (2002); 22(5): 717-726.

Lalloyer F, Staels B. Fibrates, glitazones, and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology, (2010); 30(5): 894-899.

Shearer BG, Billin AN. The next generation of PPAR drugs: do we have the tools to find them? Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, (2007); 1771(8): 1082-1093.

Steenland K, Fletcher T, Savitz DA. Epidemiologic evidence on the health effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Environmental health perspectives, (2010); 118(8): 1100-1108.

Bonato M, Corrà F, Bellio M, Guidolin L, Tallandini L, et al. PFAS environmental pollution and antioxidant responses: an overview of the impact on human field. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, (2020); 17(21): 8020.

Ross SA, Davis CD. The emerging role of microRNAs and nutrition in modulating health and disease. Annual review of nutrition, (2014); 34305-336.

Wang W, Tai F, Chen S. Optimizing protein extraction from plant tissues for enhanced proteomics analysis. Journal of separation science, (2008); 31(11): 2032-2039.

Yoshida S, Kumakura F, Komatsu I, Arai K, Onuma Y, et al. Antioxidative glutathione peroxidase activity of selenoglutathione. Angewandte Chemie, (2011); 123(9): 2173-2176.

Bafana A, Dutt S, Kumar A, Kumar S, Ahuja PS. The basic and applied aspects of superoxide dismutase. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, (2011); 68(2): 129-138.

Syversen U, Stunes AK, Gustafsson BI, Obrant KJ, Nordsletten L, et al. Different skeletal effects of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) α agonist fenofibrate and the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone. BMC Endocrine Disorders, (2009); 9(1): 10.

Jain MR, Giri SR, Trivedi C, Bhoi B, Rath A, et al. Saroglitazar, a novel PPARα/γ agonist with predominant PPARα activity, shows lipid‐lowering and insulin‐sensitizing effects in preclinical models. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives, (2015); 3(3): e00136.

Inoue M, Ohtake T, Motomura W, Takahashi N, Hosoki Y, et al. Increased expression of PPARγ in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis in mice. Biochemical and biophysical research communications, (2005); 336(1): 215-222.

Lefebvre P, Chinetti G, Fruchart J-C, Staels B. Sorting out the roles of PPARα in energy metabolism and vascular homeostasis. The Journal of clinical investigation, (2006); 116(3): 571-580.


  • There are currently no refbacks.