A review on Aluminum phosphide (Rice Tablets) Poisoning; From Exposure to the Applicable and New Strategies of Clinical Management

Aliasghar Manouchehri, Shiva Ghareghani, Shabnam Shamaei, Maede Nilechi, Fatemeh Bossaghzadeh


Rice tablets (especially aluminum phosphide) as a solid fumigant pesticide is one of the major areas of interest within the field of pesticide poisoning due to high fatality. It is commonly used in grain storage places including silos, warehouses, and grain transporting systems such as ships to control damages of pests and rodents. Unfortunately, it is considerably consumed for suicidal purpose in developing countries because of the ease of access. Aluminum phosphide (ALP) has been conceived as the most mortal one among others and accounts for many deaths each year. ALP toxicity is associated with phosphine gas liberation which is highly toxic and may cause various toxicities in all body organs, especially in cardiovascular and respiratory systems. As there is no certain antidote to prevent human's death, hence having thorough information about this pesticide is required. Thus, in this article physiochemical features of rice tablets, various toxicological, clinical/pathological impacts of ALP on human body and also applicable and new strategies of its managements have been highlighted. Eventually, gathering all published information about ALP intoxication till date demonstrated that restricted preventative measures plus early and improved management protocols can limit the organ injuries and mortality.

Keywords: Phosphine; Rice tablet; Aluminum phosphide; Human poisoning; Pesticide; Toxicity of ALP; Management strategies

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