Antiparasitic Activity of Chemically Synthesized Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles against Small Ruminant Haemonchosis

Muhammad Imran, Abdullah F Alsayeqh


Background: Haemonchosis, a debilitating parasitic disease of small ruminants, is a major threat to food security globally. The development of alternative antiparasitic interventions is an important measure toward reducing the progress of veterinary drugs resistance in food animals. Hence, reducing the risks related to chemical foodborne hazards exposure. This study was designed to investigate the anti-parasitic activity of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO-NPs) against different stages of Haemonchus contortus.

Methods: Preparation of magnesium oxide nanoparticles was conducted by sol-gel method at room temperature. For anti-parasitic activity of nanoparticles and commercially available anthelmintics, the adult worms and eggs (collected from gravid female worms) were subjected to adult motility assay and egg hatch assay, respectively. The relative efficacy of both nanoparticles and anthelmintics was classified by identifying the lethal dose LC50.

Results: Wormicidal effects of MgO-NPs were found to depend on both the concentration and the amount of time, they were exposed to. The lower concentrations of the nanoparticle (1 to 5 µg/mL) have not shown any mortality during the first four hours of the incubation. However, the higher concentrations of the nanoparticle (10, 15, 20, and 25 µg/mL) harmed the parasite during this time. The highest dose (25 µg/mL) was capable of killing almost all the worms during the first 16 hours. The highest concentration of nanoparticle induced 90±2.89% egg hatch inhibition and 91±3.3% adulticidal activity for egg hatch assay and adult motility assay, respectively.

Conclusion: Magnesium oxide nanoparticles have shown potent anti-parasitic properties. The study may provide potential alternative anthelmintic to control gastrointestinal parasites particularly haemonchosis in the scenario of emerging anthelmintic resistance.

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