Potential health-related phytoconstituents in leaves of Chenopodium quinoa

Arshad Javaid, Farman Ahmad Chaudhury, Iqra Haider Khan, Malik F. H. Ferdosi


Background: Chenopodium quinoa Willd. or quinoa is an important food crop, having many pharmacological properties. It is recently introduced in Pakistan. In the present study, a phytochemical profile of its leaf extract was assessed through GC-MS analysis, and the health-related compounds were identified through a literature survey.

Methods: Quinoa was grown in Lahore, Pakistan, and its leaves were collected at maturity, dried, ground, and extracted in methanol. GC-MS analysis of this extract was done that showed the presence of 30 compounds.

Results: The most abundant compound was α-linolenic acid (12.13%), followed by n-hexadecanoic acid (11.51%), ergosta-5,7-dien-3-ol, (3β)- (10.99%), phytol (10.25%), and stigmast-7-en-3-ol, (3.beta.,5.alpha.,24S)- (7.33%). Moderately occurring compounds included DL-proline, 5-oxo-, methyl ester (6.01%), hydroxylamine, O-pentyl- (5.38%), neophytadiene (4.36%), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (3.96%), 2-isopropoxyethyl propionate (3.84%), vitamin E (2.52%), and linolenic acid, methyl ester (2.46%). The remaining compounds were less abundant, having peak areas of less than 2%.

Conclusion: Literature survey revealed that α-linolenic acid; n-hexadecanoic acid; phytol; squalene, vitamin E and linolenic acid, and methyl ester; present in leaf extract of quinoa possess various health-related properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, cardio-protective, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, antihistaminic, antiandrogenic and antieczemic.                    

Keywords: Amaranthaceae; Bioactive compounds; Leaf extract; Pakistan; Quinoa  

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