A comparative study between X-chromosome mapping of Sudanese and Egyptian Anopheles pharoensis theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) strains

Najlaa Siddig Nasir, Fatima Fadul Ali, Mohamed Osman Elamin, Ali M. Alshehri, Hatim A. Natto, Hatim M Badri, Wahaj A. Khan, Ahmed A Osman, Luay Alkazmi


Background: Current literature lacks information regarding Anopheles pharoensis malaria transmission patterns. Anopheles pharoensis succeeded in transmitting Malaria in Egypt. However, it was unsuccessful in doing the same in Sudan. From here arises these important questions: Why does it transmit malaria in Egypt but not in the Sudan or other Countries? Is it a Sibling species or a Sub-species? This investigation aimed to answer these questions by studying the genetics of Anopheles pharoensis collected from Egypt and Sudan.

Methods: A comparative study was conducted in Egypt and Sudan to determine the population genetic structure of Anopheles pharoensis species based on chromosomal inversion of karyotypes. Fourth-stage larvae of Anopheles pharoensis were collected from Egypt (Faiyoum government) and from Sudan (Khartoum, Gezira and Sennar states).

Result: Significant levels of differentiation were observed among the species studied.

Conclusion: Investigations suggest that Anopheles pharoensis species collected from Egypt can transmit malaria due to the presence of an inversion in the X-chromosome. The lack of the aforementioned inversion probably prevented the transmission of malaria by Anopheles pharoensis in Sudan. The results above provide insight into malaria transmission patterns by Anopheles pharoensis. However, more needs to be done and hence it is recommended to undergo further research on genetics and morphological studies using molecular biological tool son Anopheles pharoensis in Sudan.

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