Isolation, Identification and In Vitro Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Citrus Canker Causing Organism Xanthomonas axonopodis.

Mohammed Amirul Islam, Reaz Mohammad Mazumdar, Saiful Islam, Md. Jahangir Alam, Samsed Ahmed Urmee


Background: Xanthomonas axonopodis or X. axonopodis is the devastating causal organism of citrus canker, widely spread bacterial disease of plants from both epidemiological and economic points of view. Furthermore, the situation is worsening by the advent of increased antibiotic resistance among this bacteria. The major interests of this study were isolation, identification and in vitro antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the causal organism. Besides, herbal sensitivity of those organisms was also tested. 

Methods: In this study, 9 isolates of the organism were identified based on morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. All the isolates were tested for antibiotic sensitivity against 5 commonly used antibiotics namely, cefotaxime, bacitracin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and gentamycin. 

Results: X. axonopodis was found 100% resistant to cefotaxime and 77.77% to bacitracin. Chloramphenicol was found most effective as all the isolates were sensitive to it. The herbal sensitivity of X. axonopodis was tested with the plant extract of Allium cepaAllium sativumLitchi chinensisVitis amurensis and Syzygium cumini. Among the plant extracts, the pathogens were found most sensitive to Allium sativum and Syzygium cumini and resistant to V. amurensis

Conclusion: The study showed herbal treatment can be implicated for the disease citrus canker caused by antibiotic resistant X. axonopodis in future.

Full Text:



Sahi ST, Ghazanfar MU, Afzal M, Rashed A, Habib A. Incidence of citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri (Hasse) dows on Kinnow (Citrus reticulata) and its chemotherapy. PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY, (2007); 39(4): 1319.

Mansfield J, Genin S, Magori S, Citovsky V, Sriariyanum M, et al. Top 10 plant pathogenic bacteria in molecular plant pathology. Molecular plant pathology, (2012); 13(6): 614-629.

Pruvost O, Boher B, Brocherieux C, Nicole M, Chiroleu F. Survival of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in leaf lesions under tropical environmental conditions and simulated splash dispersal of inoculum. Phytopathology, (2002); 92(4): 336-346.

Scortichini M, Marchesi U, Di Prospero P. Genetic diversity of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis (synonyms: X. campestris pv. juglandis; X. juglandis pv. juglandis) strains from different geographical areas shown by repetitive polymerase chain reaction genomic fingerprinting. Journal of Phytopathology, (2001); 149(6): 325-332.

Bauer A, Kirby W, Sherris JC, turck, Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. American journal of clinical pathology, (1966); 45(4): 493.

Ordax M, Biosca E, Wimalajeewa S, López M, Marco‐Noales E. Survival of Erwinia amylovora in mature apple fruit calyces through the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. Journal of applied microbiology, (2009); 107(1): 106-116.

Koizumi M. Citrus canker: The world situation. Citrus Canker: An International Perspective LW Timmer, ed University of Florida, Lake Alfred, (1985); 2-7.

Leite Jr R, Mohan S. Integrated management of the citrus bacterial canker disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri in the State of Paraná, Brazil. Crop Protection, (1990); 9(1): 3-7.

Rinaldi D, Leite Jr R. Adaptation of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri population to the presence of copper compounds in nature; 2000. pp. 1064.

Das A. Citrus canker-A review. Journal of Applied Horticulture, (2003); 5(1): 52-60.

Beheshti B, Sharifi-Sirchi G, Mansouri M, Hosseinipour A, Schlaich N. Resistance to citrus canker in Key/Mexican Lime Induced by β-Aminobutyric Acid and green tea. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, (2011).

Akhtar MA, Rahber-Bhatti M, Aslam M. Antibacterial activity of plant diffusate against Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri. International Journal of Pest Management, (1997); 43(2): 149-153.

Satish S, Raveesha K, Janardhana G. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts on phytopathogenic Xanthomonas campestris pathovars. Letters in Applied Microbiology, (1999); 28(2): 145-147.

Mosch J, Zeller W, Rieck M, Ullrich W. Further studies on plant extracts with a resistance induction effect against Erwinia amylovora; 1995. pp. 361-366.

Naganawa R, Iwata N, Ishikawa K, Fukuda H, Fujino T, et al. Inhibition of microbial growth by ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound derived from garlic. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, (1996); 62(11): 4238-4242.

San-Blas G, Marino L, San-Blas F, Apitz-Castro R. Effect of ajoene on dimorphism of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Journal of medical and veterinary mycology, (1993); 31(2): 133-141.

Vohora S, Rizwan M, Khan J. Medicinal uses of common Indian vegetables. Planta medica, (1973); 23(4): 381-39.



  • There are currently no refbacks.