Toxicopathological effects of endosulfan in female Japanese Quails (Coturnix japonica)

Tahir Hussain, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Ahrar Khan, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Qamar Bilal, Farrah Deeba, Hamid Irshad, Zahida Fatima, Farhan Afzal, Umar Farooq, Muhammad Moazam Jalees


Background: The current study was planned to investigate the toxico-pathological effects of endosulfan in female Japanese quails.

Methods: A total of 120 quail of 4 weeks old were divided into six equal groups (A-F) and administered endosulfan in feed at dose rate of 0, 5, 25, 50, 100, and 500 mg/kg feed, respectively for 90 days. Parameters studied included clinical signs, feed intake, body weight and mortality. Hematology, serum biochemistry, hatchability and fertility were also determined. Gross and microscopic changes on different organs were recorded.

Results: The quails of the group B did not show any clinical signs and had significantly lower values of feed intake, testes relative weight and leukocyte number than those of the control group A. The quails of group C and D had mild depression while those of the group E and F showed nervous excitation following ingestion of endosulfan. There was a dose related delay in onset of crowing, appearance of foamy material in the droppings. The feed intake, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, hematocrit values, and serum total proteins of endosulfan fed quails were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that of the group A. The total egg production in groups A, B and C was significantly higher from group D, E and F.  The hatchability in group A and B was significantly higher from groups C, D, E and F. The difference of dead in shell % and early dead among different groups was nonsignificant. Infertile egg percentage was significantly higher in group E compared with all other groups except group F. The necrotic changes were observed in all parts of oviduct in high dose groups, similarly necrotic changes and vacuolar degeneration was observed in hepatic parenchyma in high dose groups D-F.

Conclusion: It may be concluded that endosulfan leads to dose dependent changes in the quails.

Keywords: Body weight; Coturnix japonica; Endosulfan; Haematological values; Histopathology

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