Estimation of Different Biochemical Intensities in Drinking Water from Eastern Region of Lahore City

Muhammad Adnan Shan, Fazeelat Tahira, Muhammad Shafique, Manzoor Hussain, Rukhsana Perveen, Muhammad Shahzad, Farhana Ehsan, Muhammad Saqib Shahzad, Ziaur Rahman, Qurban Ali, Muhammad Iqbal


Background: Lahore is city of over 8 million population with consumption of over 350 million gallons of fresh water per day. The present study was undertaken to determine the suitability of ground water from different areas of Mughalpura Lahore which is being used for drinking purposes.

Methods: The ionic concentration of TDS (total dissolved solids), TSS (total suspended solids), calcium, magnesium, sulphate, chloride, carbonate, bicarbonate and alkalinity in the collected water samples was determined. The concentration of heavy metals like Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd, As, Pb and Fe was estimated by applying American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods. The EC (electrical conductivity), pH, BOD (biological oxygen demand) and COD (chemical oxygen demand) values of the water were also measured. Data was statistically analyzed through analysis of variance technique.

Results: Increasing concentrations of heavy metals like Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd, As, Pb, Fe and TDS, TSS, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, chloride, carbonate, bicarbonate and alkalinity were obtained. The observed values of EC, BOD and COD were also high in range. Only the pH value obtained was in the range of WHO standards.

Conclusion: It was concluded from correlation among various chemical components in water like Ca+2, Mg+2, HCO3- and SO4-2 that this water is not safe for drinking according to WHO standards. The correlation among alkalinity, pH, Ca+2, Cl-, EC, HCO3-, SO4-2, TH and TSS further suggested that the samples with higher amount of these components must not be used for drinking purposes by animals and human.

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