Association patterns of Atrial Fibrillation with symptoms of metabolic syndrome

Saima Sharif, Tasnim Farasat, Saira Rafaqat, Shagufta Naz, Farkhanda Manzoor, Muhammad Saqib


Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the common cardiac arrhythmia in which heart beats irregularly usually greater than 100 beats per minutes. AF is well-documented public health problem causing substantial mortality and morbidity. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a collection of metabolic risk factors like diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and impaired glucose level that exists in one person. The aim of the present study is to find the relation between AF and MS.

Methods: 100 patients of AF were sampled from Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore from December, 2014 to June 2015. These patients were divided into two AF groups, 50 without MS and 50 with MS. 25 healthy subjects were also included for the comparison. Lipid profile was assessed by chemistry analyzer and serum insulin was measured by ELISA.

Results: In our population, there was significantly high levels of insulin resistance (IR) and obesity in AF groups (without MS and with MS) as compared with healthy subjects (P<0.05). Highly significant differences was observed in relation with other parameters e.g. hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, HDL-C among the studied groups (P<0.05). Significant positive correlation was observed between insulin and lipid profile (TC, TG, LDL) while inverse with HDL.

Conclusion: The indictors of metabolic syndrome were significantly correlated with AF in the studied subjects, while IR was found significantly higher in MS group. 

Full Text:



Chugh SS, Roth GA, Gillum RF, Mensah GA. Global burden of atrial fibrillation in developed and developing nations. Global Heart, (2014); 9(1): 113-119.

Anumonwo JM, Kalifa J. Risk factors and genetics of atrial fibrillation. Cardiology clinics, (2014); 32(4): 485-494.

Heart TN. Atrial fibrillation: Current understandings and research imperatives. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, (1993); 22(7): 1830-1834.

Disch DL, Greenberg ML, Holzberger PT, Malenka DJ, Birkmeyer JD. Managing chronic atrial fibrillation: a Markov decision analysis comparing warfarin, quinidine, and low-dose amiodarone. Annals of Internal Medicine, (1994); 120(6): 449-457.

Kaur J. A comprehensive review on metabolic syndrome. Cardiology research and practice, (2014); 2014: 943162.

Ford ES, Li C. Defining the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: will the real definition please stand up? The Journal of pediatrics, (2008); 152(2): 160-164. e113.

Hung C-L, Chao T-F, Lai Y-H, Yen C-H, Wang K-L, et al. The relationship among atrium electromechanical interval, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, (2013); 29(10): 1263-1268.

Watanabe H, Tanabe N, Watanabe T, Darbar D, Roden DM, et al. Metabolic syndrome and risk of development of atrial fibrillation. Circulation, (2008); 117(10): 1255-1260.

DeWitt DE, Hirsch IB. Outpatient insulin therapy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: scientific review. Jama, (2003); 289(17): 2254-2264.

Gurnell M, Savage DB, Chatterjee VKK, O’Rahilly S. The metabolic syndrome: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and its therapeutic modulation. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, (2003); 88(6): 2412-2421.

Östgren CJ, Merlo J, Råstam L, Lindblad U. Atrial fibrillation and its association with type 2 diabetes and hypertension in a Swedish community. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, (2004); 6(5): 367-374.

Expert Panel on Detection E. Executive summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Jama, (2001); 285(19): 2486-2497.

Pastucha D, Filipcikova R, Horáková D, Radová L, Marinov Z, et al. The incidence of metabolic syndrome in obese Czech children: the importance of early detection of insulin resistance using homeostatic indexes HOMA-IR and QUICKI. Physiological Research, (2013); 62(3): 277-283.

Heeringa J, van der Kuip DA, Hofman A, Kors JA, van Herpen G, et al. Prevalence, incidence and lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation: the Rotterdam study. European Heart Journal, (2006); 27(8): 949-953.

Naccarelli GV, Varker H, Lin J, Schulman KL. Increasing prevalence of atrial fibrillation and flutter in the United States. The American Journal of Cardiology, (2009); 104(11): 1534-1539.

Karasoy D, Bo Jensen T, Hansen ML, Schmiegelow M, Lamberts M, et al. Obesity is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation among fertile young women: a nationwide cohort study. EP Europace, (2013); 15(6): 781-786.

Kurth T, Gaziano JM, Berger K, Kase CS, Rexrode KM, et al. Body mass index and the risk of stroke in men. Archives of Internal Medicine, (2002); 162(22): 2557-2562.

Johnson LS, Juhlin T, Engström G, Nilsson PM. Low fasting plasma insulin is associated with atrial fibrillation in men from a cohort study-the Malmö preventive project. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, (2014); 14(1): 107.

Lobstein T, Jackson‐Leach R. Estimated burden of paediatric obesity and co‐morbidities in Europe. Part 2. Numbers of children with indicators of obesity‐related disease. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, (2006); 1(1): 33-41.

Fontes JD, Lyass A, Massaro JM, Rienstra M, Dallmeier D, et al. Insulin resistance and atrial fibrillation (from the Framingham Heart Study). The American journal of cardiology, (2012); 109(1): 87-90.

Shigematsu Y, Norimatsu S, Ogimoto A, Ohtsuka T, Okayama H, et al. The influence of insulin resistance and obesity on left atrial size in Japanese hypertensive patients. Hypertension Research, (2009); 32(6): 500-504.

Shigematsu Y, Hamada M, Nagai T, Nishimura K, Inoue K, et al. Risk for atrial fibrillation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: association with insulin resistance. Journal of cardiology, (2011); 58(1): 18-25.


  • There are currently no refbacks.