Rh alleles and phenotypes among Saudi women in Hail Region, Saudi Arabia

Jerold C. Alcantara, Tessie Y. Alcantara, Khalid Al Shaghdali, Fawaz D Alshammari, Fahad Ghali M Al Shammari


Background: The Rh system is considered as the most complex among the human blood group systems, with 61 antigens identified to date. This study aimed to provide preliminary data on the distribution of Rh alleles and phenotypes among Saudi women and compare them with other ethnic groups.

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among Saudi women who visited the Maternity and Children Hospital of Hail from November 2019 to March 2020. A fully automated blood bank analyzer was used in determining the Rh subgroups (D, C, c, E, e) and phenotypes. Inferential statistics and chi-square tests were used appropriately for comparisons.

Results: The study included a total of 500 Saudi female patients. The most prevalent antigen found was the “e” antigen, while phenotype CcDee has shown to have the highest frequency. A significant difference exists in comparison with the other studies from various ethnic groups.

Conclusions: The prevalence and distributions of Rh alleles and phenotypes among Saudi women were revealed in this study. The findings showed that Rh alleles and phenotypes are diverse across various races and regions globally.

Keywords: Rh allele; Rh phenotype; Rh system; Saudi Arabia

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