Effect of quinoa biomass and biocontrol fungi on expression of IPER gene in mung bean in Macrophomina phaseolina contaminated soil

Farman Ahmad Chaudhury, Iqra Haider Khan, Arshad Javaid


Background: Mung bean is a pulse crop of economic significance, grown in Pakistan for its edible seeds. Its production is severely affected by Macrophomina phaseolina, a necrotrophic pathogen. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of different biocontrol fungi on expression of IPER gene in mung bean plants inoculated with M. phaseolina.

Methods: Pot trials were carried out by adding different concentration of dry biomass of quinoa (DBQ) and six antagonistic fungi viz. Aspergillus flavipes, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium digitatumPenicillium italicum, Trichoderma pseudokoningii and Trichoderma viride in M. phaseolina infected soils. After four weeks of germination of mung bean seeds, RNA was extracted from roots and leaves by using TRIzol method and cDNA was prepared by using SuperScriptTM IV First-Strand Synthesis Kit. IPER gene expression was studied on qRT-PCR and ACT was used as a housekeeping gene.

Results: The expression of IPER gene was higher in positive control (only inoculated with M. phaseolina) than in negative control (no amendment). Moreover, 1 and 2% doses of DBQ showed slightly higher Ct values than in 3% dose where it was dropped down indicating the allelopathic stress of DBQ treated soils. The treatments either with sole application of antagonistic fungi or together with DBQ showed much higher Ct values indicating no stress at all.

Conclusion: Plants only inoculated with M. phaseolina showed the highest disease incidence as compared to the negative control. The soils amended with DBQ and antagonistic fungi significantly alleviated the effect of M. phaseolina. The treatments with increased pathogen stress showed reduced Ct values and vice versa.

Keywords: Biocontrol; IPER gene; Gene expression; Macrophomina phaseolina; Mung bean 

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