Carotid artery Disease Assessed by Color Doppler Flow Imaging: Comparison Between Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients

Hamna Areej, Syed Muhammad Yousaf Farooq, Naveed Asad, Mehreen Fatima, Areeba Mahmood, Ume Kalsoom Attique, M. Usama Tahir, Haq Nawaz Khan


Background: Carotid artery disease is most often seen in hypertensive patients and in patients with diabetes mellitus. More than 50% stenosis of extra cranial internal carotid arteries is linked with about 8–15% of ischemic strokes. The incidence of carotid artery stenosis (CAS) among diabetic patients is rising as compared to non-diabetic patients.  

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 120 patients, out of whom 60 were diabetic and 60 non-diabetics with clinically suspected carotid artery disease.  The study was conducted at the university ultrasound clinic in Green Town by Doppler ultrasonography using the Toshiba XARIO XG, which features a linear probe of 5-7.5 MHz frequency. The data was analyzed with the help of SPSS version 25.0. Variables like age, gender, diabetes, and Intima-media thickness (IMT) were reported and the mean ± standard deviation of Pulsatility Index, Resistive Index, Peak Systolic Velocity, and End Diastolic Velocity were calculated with a significant p-value, which is less than 0.05. An independent t-test was applied to compare Doppler indices in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.

Results: Data was collected from 120 patients. IMT of right and left carotid artery, PI and RI of right carotid were observed to be statistically significant in diabetic and non-diabetic.

Conclusions: This study concluded that there is a significant correlation found between carotid artery disease and diabetes. Through ultrasonography, the presence of plaque and stenosis was found in more diabetic patients than in non-diabetic patients.

Keywords: Ultrasonography; Carotid artery disease; Carotid artery stenosis; Carotid plaque; Vascular ultrasound; Diabetes    

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